'Hacking' a Diabetes Cure?

man viewing ekg on smartphone

At least 85 people and counting are managing their type 1 diabetes with an artificial pancreas system they built themselves.

Web MD Health & Parenting
'Hacking' a Diabetes Cure?
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  3. ?Chapter Outline
    I. Overview of Rogers’s Person-Centered Theory Although Carl Rogers is most reliable known as being the founder of client-centered therapy, he also developed an important theory of personality that underscores his procedure to therapy.
    II. Biography of Carl Rogers Carl Rogers was born into a devoutly religious family inside of a Chicago suburb in 1902. After the family moved to your farm near Chicago, Carl became interested in scientific farming and learned to appreciate the scientific method. When he graduated from the University of Wisconsin, Rogers intended to become a minister, but he gave up that notion and completed a Ph.D. in psychology from Columbia University in 1931. In 1940, after nearly a dozen years absent from an academic life working as a clinician, he took a position at Ohio State University. Later, he held positions within the University of Chicago also, the University of Wisconsin. In 1964, he moved to California where he helped found the Center for Studies on the Person. He died in 1987 at age 85.
    III. Person-Centered Theory Rogers carefully crafted his person-centered theory of personality to meet his individual demands for a structural design that could explain and predict outcomes of client-centered therapy. However, the theory has implications far beyond the therapeutic setting. A. Common Assumptions Person-centered theory rests on two standard assumptions: (1) the formative tendency, which states that all matter, both of those organic and inorganic, tends to evolve from simpler to a bit more complex kinds, and (two) an actualizing tendency, which suggests that all living things, as well as humans, tend to move toward completion, or fulfillment of potentials. However, in order for people (or plants and animals) to become actualized, certain identifiable conditions must be existing. For a person, these conditions include a relationship with another person who is genuine, or congruent, and who demonstrates extensive acceptance and empathy for that person. B. The Self and Self-Actualization A perception of self or personal identity begins to emerge during infancy, and, once established, it lets a person to strive toward self-actualization, which really is a subsystem for the actualization tendency and refers to the tendency to actualize the self as perceived in awareness. The self has two subsystems: (1) the self-concept, which incorporates all those aspects of one’s identity that are perceived in awareness, and (two) the ideal self, or our watch of our self as we would like to be or aspire to be. Once formed, the self concept tends to resist change, and gaps around it plus the ideal self result in incongruence and diverse ranges of psychopathology.
    C. Awareness People are aware of equally their self-concept and their ideal self, although awareness really need not be accurate or in a substantial stage. Rogers saw people as having experiences on three stages of awareness: (1) those that are symbolized below the threshold of awareness and are either ignored or denied, that is definitely, subceived, or not allowed into the self-concept; (two) those that are distorted or reshaped to fit it into an current self-concept; and (3) those that are consistent with the self-concept and thus are accurately symbolized and freely admitted to the self-structure. Any undergo not consistent with the self-concept-even positive experiences-will be distorted or denied. D. Needs The two simple human needs are maintenance and enhancement, but people also would need positive regard and self-regard. Maintenance needs include those for food, air, and safety, nonetheless they also include our tendency to resist change and to preserve our self-concept as it is. Enhancement needs include needs to grow and to realize one’s whole human potential. As awareness of self emerges, an infant begins to acquire positive regard from another person-that is, to be loved or accepted. People naturally value those experiences that satisfy their needs for positive regard, but, unfortunately, this value frequently becomes extra powerful than the reward they obtain for meeting their organismic needs. This sets up the condition of incongruence, which is knowledgeable when simple organismic needs are denied or distorted in favor of needs to be loved or accepted. As a result of experiences with positive regard, people create the must have for self-regard, which they acquire only after they perceive that someone else cares for them and values them. Once established, however, self-regard becomes autonomous and no longer dependent on another’s continuous positive evaluation. E. Conditions of Worth Most people are not unconditionally accepted. Instead, they acquire conditions of worth; which is, they experience that they are loved and accepted only when and if they meet the conditions established by others. F. Psychological Stagnation If the organismic self and also the self-concept are at variance with 1 another, a person may knowledge incongruence, which comprises of vulnerability, threat, defensiveness, and even disorganization. The greater the incongruence in between self-concept and therefore the organismic know-how, the a lot more vulnerable that person becomes. Anxiety exists whenever the person becomes dimly aware of your discrepancy somewhere between organismic expertise and self-concept, whereas threat is expert whenever the person becomes far more clearly aware of this incongruence. To prevent incongruence, people react with defensiveness, typically inside the kinds of distortion and denial. With distortion, people misinterpret an expertise so that it fits into their self-concept; with denial, people refuse to permit the go through into awareness. When people’s defenses fail to operate properly, their behavior becomes disorganized or psychotic. With disorganization, people typically behave consistently with their organismic working experience and at times in accordance with their shattered self-concept.
    IV. Psychotherapy For client-centered psychotherapy to be effective, certain conditions are necessary: A vulnerable client must have contact of some duration which includes a counselor who is congruent, and who demonstrates unconditional positive regard and listens with empathy into a client. The client must in turn perceive the congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy of your therapist. If these conditions are existing, then the technique of therapy will take destination and certain predictable outcomes will result. A. Conditions Three conditions are crucial to client-centered therapy, and Rogers called them the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic growth. The first of all is counselor congruence, or a therapist whose organismic experiences are matched by an awareness and by the ability and willingness to openly express these feelings. Congruence is way more important than the opposite two conditions due to the fact that it really is a relatively stable characteristic from the therapist, whereas the opposite two conditions are constrained into a distinct therapeutic relationship. Unconditional positive regard exists if the therapist accepts the client without conditions or qualifications. Empathic listening is the therapist’s ability to perception the feelings of the client and also to communicate these perceptions so that the client knows that another person has entered into his or her world of feelings without prejudice, projection, or evaluation. B. Operation Rogers saw the technique of therapeutic change as taking position in seven stages: (1) clients are unwilling to communicate anything about themselves; (two) they discuss only external events and other people; (3) they begin to talk about themselves, but even now as an object; (four) they discuss sturdy emotions that they have felt around the past; (5) they begin to express current feelings; (6) they freely help into awareness those experiences that had been previously denied or distorted; and (7) they encounter irreversible change and growth. C. Outcomes When client-centered therapy is successful, clients become greater congruent, less defensive, way more open to practical experience, and a lot more realistic. The gap in between their ideal self and their true self narrows and, as a consequence, clients practical experience less physiological and psychological tension. Finally, clients’ interpersonal relationships improve since they are further accepting of self and others.
    V. The Person of Tomorrow Rogers was vitally interested from the psychologically healthy person, called the "fully functioning person" or the "person of tomorrow." Rogers listed seven characteristics for the person of tomorrow. The person of tomorrow (1) is able to adjust to change, (two) is open to practical knowledge, (3) is able to live fully inside moment, (four) is able to have harmonious relations with others, (5) is a great deal more integrated with no artificial boundaries amongst conscious and unconscious processes, (6) has a straightforward trust of human nature, and (7) enjoys a greater richness in life. The factors have implications both of those to the individual and for society.
    VI. Philosophy of Science Rogers agreed with Maslow that scientists must care about and be involved inside of the phenomena they study which psychologists should limit their objectivity and precision to their methodology, not to the generation of hypotheses or to the communication of research findings.
    VII. The Chicago Study When he taught with the University of Chicago, Rogers, along with colleagues and graduate students, conducted a sophisticated and complex study for the effectiveness of psychotherapy. A. Hypotheses This study tested four broad hypotheses. As a consequence of therapy (1) clients will become significantly more aware of their feelings and experiences, (two) the gap relating to the real self together with the ideal self will lessen; (3) clients’ behavior will become extra socialized and mature; and (four) clients will become both equally much more self-accepting plus more accepting of others. B. Method Participants were being adults who sought therapy with the University of Chicago counseling center. Experimenters asked 50 percent of these to wait sixty days before receiving therapy even while beginning therapy with the opposite 50 percent. Moreover, they tested a control group of "normals" who ended up matched with the therapy group. This control group was also divided into a wait group along with a non-wait group. C. Findings Rogers and his associates found that the therapy group-but not the wait group-showed a lessening of your gap among real self and ideal self. They also found that clients who improved during therapy-but not those rated as least improved-showed changes in social behavior, as noted by friends. D. Summary of Benefits Although client-centered therapy was successful in changing clients, it was not successful in bringing them to the degree within the fully functioning persons or even to the amount of "normal" psychological health.
    VIII. Related Research Significantly more not too long ago, other researchers have investigated Rogers’s facilitative conditions each exterior therapy and in just therapy. A. Facilitative Conditions Exterior Therapy From the United Kingdom, Duncan Cramer has conducted a series of studies investigating the therapeutic qualities of Rogers’s facilitative conditions in interpersonal relationships exterior of therapy. Cramer found positive relationships amongst self-esteem, as measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and then the four facilitative conditions that make up the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory-level of regard, unconditionality of regard, congruence, and empathy. Moreover, the direction belonging to the relationship strongly suggested that Rogers’s facilitative conditions precede the acquisition of higher concentrations of self-esteem. B. Facilitative Conditions and Couples Therapy In Belgium, Alfons Vansteenwegen (1996) implemented a revised sort on the Barrett-Lennard to determine if Rogers’s facilitative conditions related to success during couples therapy. He found that client-centered couples therapy can bring about positive changes in couples, which a few of these changes lasted for at least seven years after therapy.
    IX. Critique of Rogers Rogers’s person-centered theory is a single for the most carefully constructed of all personality theories, and it meets very perfectly each and every from the six criteria of the useful theory. It rates very very high on internal consistency and parsimony, superior on its ability to be falsified and to generate research, and high-average on its ability to organize knowledge and to serve as a guide to the practitioner.
    X. Concept of Humanity Rogers believed that humans have the capacity to change and grow-provided that certain necessary and sufficient conditions are current. Therefore, his theory rates very excessive on optimism. Additionally, it rates large on free of charge choice, teleology, conscious motivation, social influences, plus the uniqueness for the individual. [url=http://millsentertainment.com/news-jobs/write-academic-essays-for-money]Essay Writing Service | Essay Writer for All Kinds of Papers[/url]

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